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Training programs were established and Arabic speaking role players were utilized to attempt to re-create the cultural environment that Marines and Soldiers would face in Iraq. This was the first time any such attempt at cultural immersion was applied. Despite all of the financial resources and technical knowhow, the United States in Iraq demonstrated a 85 Folsom, Seth W.

Both policymakers and senior military staff paid lip service to the importance of the mission but never demonstrated the necessary commitment. Problems with training, selection and screening, language, cultural awareness, and career progression once again persisted. Yet there was some growth, albeit inconsistent and seemingly inadvertent. Furthermore, despite the ad hoc nature of the advisor effort initially, there was some movement towards institutionalization, with advisor training still taking place both at Fort Polk and ATG.

To date, the Iraqi military has proven to be a mixed bag. Iraqi Security Forces are currently battling militants in Al-Anbar; however, operations remain poorly planned and executed despite years of American mentorship.

Regardless of the outcome, it will be in spite of the fact that the U. Conclusion 88 Abbas, Mushreq. Each case offers insights into the best and worst practices of advising foreign forces. In the Philippines, colonial attitudes dominated the American impression of Filipino forces. Over time, and with considerable effort, American officers succeeded in developing a very talented and proficient scout force; however, the effort remained tinged by racial prejudices as American officers led Filipino scouts directly.

Meanwhile, in Korea, American forces tasked with building a South Korean army, initiated the practice of truly advising their counterparts as they shied away from actually commanding South Korean units whenever possible. They did this even without the necessary men or material and instead improvised their way through the process - all while striving to maintain a high level of cultural awareness.

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The advisor effort of the Vietnam War proved as confused and poorly managed as the war itself. Cultural sensitivities were nearly non-existent and while some formal advisor training courses appeared for the first time, they proved ineffective. Upon invading Iraq, the United States military possessed significant experience in SFA dating back over one hundred years. Nevertheless, advisor efforts started from scratch.

Selecting and sourcing advisors proved as big a challenge as ever, while training efforts demonstrated excessive focus on combat skills at the expense of advisor skills. No matter the era, America repeatedly seems unable to learn from its previous advisor efforts. Security Force Assistance Efforts. Today, the defense budget is among the most contentious issues debated on Capitol Hill and there is little reason to believe that the current fiscal tightening will be reversed in the near future.

Regardless of the resources available, the Department of Defense is still expected to protect and project American interests. A strong, institutionalized military advisor program would go far in promoting the high return low cost imperative that the Department of Defense is currently tasked with. Current Marine Corps and the Army efforts offer possible models for institutionalization, however neither appears set to provide the Department of Defense with the most capable and competent advisor possible. Furthermore, none of these intuitions offer a new solution to either the challenge of screening and selecting advisors or tracking those Marines who have already served in such a capacity.

Within the Army, the augmented Brigade Combat Team BCT model seeks to integrate the advisor mission into existing units vice create new independent advisor institutions. Beginning in the Army began to fold the advisor mission into BCTs. This meant Army brigades deploying to Iraq and Afghanistan would take on the additional burden of advising local forces. According to the GAO, The geographic combatant commands are expected to identify and plan for security force assistance based on the needs of the partner nations in their areas of responsibility and forecast the forces needed to conduct the planned activities.

The services, in turn, are responsible for providing forces to meet the geographic combatant commands forecasted requirements. United States Special Operations Forces. New York: Columbia UP, Fort Leavenworth, KY. Corps and the Army are not producing advisors with the appropriate pedigree and training to meet the DoD combatant command mandate. Furthermore, placing the Joint Advisor Command along side the other combatant commands would promote utilization of advising as a military tool much in the way Special Operations Forces are viewed as a military tool.

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Finally, the JAC, given its position as a unified combatant command, would report directly to the Secretary of Defense thereby making military advising one of the most visible missions within the DoD. Within the JAC a formal advisor school would exist to train those servicemen tasked with advisor duty.

Upon completion of training, newly minted advisors would report to one of five regionally aligned advisor battalions where they would serve for the duration of their orders. These battalions would report directly to the JAC while not deployed. When deployed, the advisor battalions could be utilized as teams or as an entire battalion depending on the mission requirement.

Additionally, the mission would dictate command relationships. Doctrinally, the advisor battalions would support their Nagl, John A.

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Such a scenario would allow for true professional development in the area of military advising. More extensive training in language, culture, and negotiation would be emphasized. Advisors in these units, serving on their second contract, would already have a baseline of combat skills that could be refreshed, as needed, instead of taught as a primary skill. Upon completion of a three-year tour with the advisor unit, servicemen would rotate on to a new unit; however, they would carry with them a secondary MOS designator as trained advisors.

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Over time, this process would generate a reservoir of trained and vetted advisors within both the Marine Corps and the Army that could be easily tracked. If such a scenario arose where large numbers of advisors were required, the Joint Advisor Command could identify such personnel via their new MOS and then recall them as needed. In turn, the risk of trading off significant conventional capacity in exchange for advisor Nagl, John A. Ultimately, the Joint Advisor Command would not only serve as a doctrinal home but also as an advocate at the highest levels for a mission the United States routinely engages in.

Specifically, the Army and the Marine Corps would be tasked to consistently provide personnel while the Air Force and the Navy would be tasked to provide personnel on an as needed basis. This title mandate would work to combat the historical practice of offering up poorly qualified personnel for advisor duty. Bibliography Nagl, John A.

Abbas, Mushreq. Chenelly, Joseph R. Clarke, Jeffrey J. Clinton, Thomas E. Collins, James Lawton. Escandon, Joseph E. Fallows, James. Folsom, Seth W. Foreign Military Advisor Conference. Gibby, Byran R. Hickey, G. Laurie, Clayton D. McMahon, Michael J. Nagl, John A. Parker, Matthew A. Baylor University, Payne, Leslie A. Ramsey III, Robert. Ricks, Thomas E. Sawyer, Robert K. Shanker, Thom, and Wong, Edward. Stuart A.

Tucker, David, and Christopher J. Turse, Nick. United States. Woolard, James R. Wright, Donald P. Related Papers. By John R Dreyer. By David H Ucko. By Raymond Millen.


Korea and the theory of limited war. in SearchWorks catalog

Ottawa, April Military History Review Volume 2, Number 1. By Dr. Defense Policy toward Korea, — Dissertation, University of Georgia Kim Dong-Choon. Sung-Ok Kim Trans. Larkspur CA.

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Kim Inhan. Military Occupation. Lee Chae-Jin. A Troubled Peace: U.